Banana is the fruit of a plant of the genus Musa (family Musaceae), which is cultivated primarily for food and secondarily for the production of fibre used in the textile industry are also cultivated for ornamental purposes. Almost all the modern edible parthenocarpic bananas come from the two wild species – Musa acuminate Musa balbisiana. Bananas are vigorously growing, monocotyledonous herbaceous plants.The banana is not a tree but a high herb that can attain up to 15 meters of height. The cultivars vary greatly in plant an d fruit size, plant morphology, fruit quality and disease and insect resistance. Most bananas have a sweet flavor when ripe; exceptions to this are cooking bananas and plantains. Plantains are hybrid bananas in which the male flowering axis is either degenerated, lacking, or possess relicts of male flowers. Plantains are always cooked before consumption and are higher in starch than bananas.
BOTANICAL NAME : Musa sp.; FAMILY: Musaceae
ORIGIN : Asia
TOTAL AREA IN INDIA: 884 Th Ha (2017-18).
TOTAL PRODUCTION IN INDIA: 30808 Th MT (2017-18).
MAJOR PRODUCING STATES/DISTRICTS IN INDIA :
1) Tamil Nadu (Theni, Tiruchirappalli, Coimbatore, Tuticorin, Pudukkottai etc.)
2) Gujarat (Bharuch, Anand, Narmada, Surat, Vadodara etc.)
3) Andhra Pradesh (Kadapa, Anantapur, East Godavari, West Godavari, Vizianagaram etc.)
4) Uttar Pradesh (Gorakhpur, Kushi Nagar, Fatehpur, Kaushambi, Maharajganj etc.)
5) Maharashtra (Jalgaon, Nanded, Solapur, Akola, Pune etc.)
COMMERCIAL VARIETIES : Major commercially cultivated varieties are listed below.
Important banana varieties cultivated in different states of India are given below :
|Andhra Pradesh||Dwarf Cavendish, Robusta, Rasthali, Amritpant, Thellachakrakeli, Karpoora Poovan, Chakrakeli, Monthan and Yenagu Bontha|
|Assam||Jahaji (Dwarf Cavendish), Chini Champa, Malbhog, Borjahaji (Robusta), Honda, Manjahaji, Chinia (Manohar), Kanchkol, Bhimkol, Jatikol, Digjowa, Kulpait, Bharat Moni|
|Bihar||Dwarf Cavendish, Alpon, Chinia , Chini Champa, Malbhig, Muthia, Kothia , Gauria|
|Gujarat||Dwarf Cavendish, Lacatan, Harichal (Lokhandi), Gandevi Selection, Basrai, Robusta, G-9, Harichal, Shrimati|
|Karnataka||Dwarf Cavendish, Robusta, Rasthali, Poovan, Monthan, Elakkibale|
|Kerala||Nendran (Plantain), Palayankodan (Poovan), Rasthali, Monthan, Red Banana, Robusta|
Dwarf Cavendish, Basrai, Robusta, Lal Velchi, Safed Velchi, Rajeli Nendran, Grand Naine, Shreemanti, Red Banana
Dwarf Cavendish, Robusta, Champa, Patkapura (Rasthali)
|Tamil Nadu||Virupakshi, Robusta, Rad Banana, Poovan, Rasthali, Nendran, Monthan, Karpuravalli, Sakkai, Peyan, Matti|
|West Bengal||Champa, Mortman , Dwarf Cavendish, Giant Governor, Kanthali, Singapuri|
Holding Room : 13Ëš to 14ËšC ; Ripening Room : 15Ëš to 18ËšC; Relative Humidity : 90-95%
Storage Period : Mature green bananas can be stored upto 3 weeks in ethylone free air or up to 6 weeks in a controlled atmosphere at 14Ëš C
PEAK HARVESTING SEASON:
1) Gujarat : September to November
2) Andhra Pradesh : Round the year
3) Tamil Nadu :Round the year
4) Uttar Pradesh : July, August
5) Maharashtra : Round the year
EXPORT (2018-19) : India exported 135228.26 MT bananas of 59.78 US$ Mill.
MAJOR EXPORT DESTINATIONS OF BANANAS - U Arab Emts, Oman, Iran, Saudi Arab, and Nepal.